Jorge Castro: Super fast local workloads with LXD, ZFS, and Juju
I was at Config Management Camp last week in Belgium and I ran into James Page, who was running OpenStack on his laptop. I mean a real OpenStack in containers, not a devstack, a real thing you could poke at. He would stand it up, do a bit of work on it, commit, test, tear it all down, retest, and so on.
He had repartitioned his hard drive so he could have a ZFS partition, and together with LXD and the OpenStack Juju Charms it all just worked and was very fast. His Thinkpad X230 was sweating a bit, but it all worked.
I had to have this. Real instances with ip’s that behave just as they would on a real cloud, except you don’t spend money, and thanks to LXD and ZFS, hella fast. It’s up to you if you want to run xenial a few months before release, but for me it’s worth it, so I went all in. Here are my notes:
First off you need a machine. :) I needed to redo my workstation anyway so this became an evening of moving drives around and scrounging some parts. When I was done I had an i7 3770, 16GB of RAM, 4x2TB drives, and 2 SSDs.
Step 1 - Installation
Install Xenial. I installed this on one of my SSDs. I used the normal
ext4 filesystem. Next I had the 4x2TB drives and a 60GB Intel SSD, let’s put the spinning rust in a mirror, and use the SSD as cache for some decent writes (EDIT: Apparently the cache command in this context is for reads, not writes, thanks Manual Zachs for the correction). Feel free to set it up how you wanted, but I wanted a bunch of room so I could run large workloads and not worry about space or speed.
# apt install zfsutils-linux
# zpool create home mirror /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd cache /dev/sde
As you can tell,
/dev/sde is the SSD and we’re just going to use the array as our home directory. If you’re in your desktop you’ll want to logout and not be in your home directory so you don’t step on yourself when you do this. After some activity, you can see the SSD start to be used as a cache device:
# zpool iostat -v
capacity operations bandwidth
pool alloc free read write read write
---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
home 132G 7.12T 3 64 314K 5.34M
sda 33.0G 1.78T 0 16 78.8K 1.33M
sdb 32.9G 1.78T 0 16 78.0K 1.33M
sdc 32.9G 1.78T 0 16 78.7K 1.34M
sdd 32.9G 1.78T 0 16 78.8K 1.34M
cache - - - - - -
sde 25.9G 30.0G 0 34 41.0K 4.19M
---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Step 2 - LXD configuration
Now time for our containers …. first install what we need:
sudo apt install lxd
The newgrp command puts you in the lxd group, and you don’t even need to log out, bad ass. Now we tell LXD to use our ZFS pool for the containers:
And follow the directions, select zfs and put in your zpool name, mine was called
home from the command above.
LXD needs images of operating systems to launch containers (duh), so we’ll need to download them. While my host is xenial, we want trusty here because just like the real world, cloud workloads run on Ubuntu LTS:
lxd-images import ubuntu trusty amd64 --sync --alias ubuntu-trusty
Now chill for a minute while it gets images. Ok so now you’ve got lxd installed, let’s make sure it works by “sshing” into the container:
lxc launch ubuntu-trusty my-test-container
lxc exec my-test-container /bin/bash
And there you go, you’re own new OS container. Make as many as you want, go nuts. Make sure you check out the fine docs at linuxcontainers.org
Exit out of that and move on to step 3!
Step 3 - Modelling Workloads on your shiny new setup
Ok now we need to put something awesome on this. Check out the docs for the LXD provider for Juju, here’s the TLDR:
sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:juju/devel
sudo apt update
sudo apt install juju-local
OK, now let’s tell Juju to use LXD:
juju switch lxd
juju bootstrap --upload-tools
Now let’s plop a workload on there … how about some realtime syslog analytics?
juju deploy realtime-syslog-analytics
Nine containers worth of Hadoop, Spark, Yarn, Flume, and we’ll plop an Apache Zeppelin on top to make it all pretty:
Since we’re fetching all those Hadoop resources it’ll take a bit, on my system with decent internet about 10 minutes total from zero to finished. Do a
watch juju status and the bundle will update the status messages with exactly what it’s doing. Keep an eye on IO and cpu usage while this is happening and if you’re coming from the world of VMs then prepare to be impressed.
Step 4 - Small tweaks
apt update and
apt upgrade can be slow. If you think about it that’s a bunch of http requests, deb package downloads which are then unpacked, and then installed in the container. Multiply that 9 times and happening at the same time on your computer. We can mitigate this by telling juju to not update/upgrade when we spawn a new instance. Find
~/.local/share/juju/environments.yaml and turn off updates for your lxd provider:
Since we publish cloud images every few weeks anyway (and lxd will refresh these for you via a cron job) you don’t really need to have every update installed when doing development. For obvious reasons, we recommend you leave updates on when doing things “for real”.
Well, I hope you enjoy the speed and convenience. It’s a really nice combination of technologies. And I haven’t even gotten to things like rollback, snapshots, super dense stuff, and more complex workloads. LXD, ZFS, and Juju each have a ton more features that I won’t cover today, but this should get you started working faster!
In the meantime here are some more big data workloads you can play with. Next up will be OpenStack but that will be for another day.
Michael Terry: FastMail is the Perfect Gmail Alternative
If, for whatever reason, you’re looking to switch from Gmail, I think you’ll love FastMail.
Its workflow, interface, and features will be immediately recognizable to you: it has conversation view, archiving, spam detection, categorization, filtering, keyboard shortcuts, a modern and fast web UI (ditto for mobile), fast search, calendars, contacts, two-factor authentication, and the option to use your own domain name.
I’ve looked around and having even just that first one (a conversation view) is a shocking rarity in either webmail or mail apps. Let alone all those features.
Switching is easy too. You can import email directly from Gmail and can just export/import any calendars and contacts from Google. Plus, for any shared calendars that you still want to host at Google, you can have FastMail show them and sync any changes.
The big catch of course is that it isn’t free. But it’s not expensive either.
I know this post reads like an ad, but I’m just genuinely pleased so far (and I’m intentionally not using a referral code on the link above). Hopefully the next person doesn’t have to do as much comparison shopping as I did.